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  1. 1 point

    From the album Portraits

    http://www.reagandpufall.com/ Brunners Mantis

    © Reagan D Pufall

  2. 1 point

    From the album Portraits

    http://www.reagandpufall.com/

    © Reagan D Pufall

  3. 1 point
    Introduction Hymenopus coronatus, Orchid Mantis The nymphs are spectacular mimics of orchid flowers and look very much like a tiny version of the popular moth orchid flowers seen at various stores. Southeast Asia, most common stock from Malaysia. Difficulty level: intermediate Development Molts take place about every three weeks until the ultimate molt which can take twice as long. Hatchlings are red and black and may mimic certain assassin bugs. Later instars to adult are white to pink. Adults live from three to six months, rarely much longer. Molting rarely encounters problems in captivity despite the leg extensions. Behavior/temperament Nymphs usually stay in one spot to catch prey but will chase after crickets if hungry enough. Neither timid nor aggressive. Propensity to cannibalize is limited; not communal. Dynamics of threat display - none. Captive Environment Temperature range and humidity levels - room temperature to tropical (72-90F). High humidity without adequate ventilation will kill specimens. Type and size of enclosure(s) used - absolute minimum 32oz. for the large females. Substrate or lack thereof- none required. Cage furnishings, e.g. molting surfaces, perches, décor, plants, etc. -may shield prey, not needed. Communal housing if applicable - not a good idea. Feeding Feeding response - moths and flies are most attractive. Type and size of prey used and/or refused for various instars - fruit flies for the early instars, then crickets, cockroaches and flies. Quantity and frequency of feedings - late instar female nymphs can consume large quantities of prey daily. Breeding Sexing/sexual dimorphism - females look similar to the males but are a dozen times more massive. Time needed from last molt to copulation - 3-4 wks. Multiple males are suggested for mating. While rearing up nymphs is basic for anyone with limited experience, getting fertile eggs is expert level. Tips for inducing copulation and fecundity - generally about three oothecae per female. Tips for inducing female to lay oothecae - green/living plant leaves. Oothecae Physical description and average size. - thin and elongate, up to four inches long and a quarter inch wide. Diapause if necessary - none. Incubation time and temperature - approx 40 days at 80F. Observed number/s and range of hatching nymphs - highly variable, avg. ~40
  4. 1 point
    Gongylus gongylodes (Violin Mantis) Introduction: Gongylus gongylodes is a mantis in the Empusidae family. They are native to India, Java, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Adults reach about 4-4½ in total length, males being on the smaller side.(brancsikia339) Their much rarer relative, Gongylus trachelophyllus, occurs only in India, and it seems that these don't exist in culture as of now.(brancsikia339) They go by many common names so it is best not to trust these (Other than violin mantis, its most common name): violin mantis, wandering violin mantis, wandering rose mantis, dead leaf mantis, stick mantis, Indian rose mantis, rose mantis, Indian violin mantis, and ornate mantis. This species has an array of common names.(brancsikia339) All in all, Gongylus gongylodes is an incredible species, though not for the novice.(brancsikia339) Physical description/appearance, i.e. size, color, shape, crypsis, etc. Development: Rate of growth and factors involvedLongevity Molting observationsBehavior/temperament: Degree of activityDegree of aggression or timidityPropensity to cannibalizeDynamics of threat displayCaptive Environment: They need a lot of twigs and branches to molt on. They also need high temps, up to the mid 90's and down to the low 80's to molt properly.(brancsikia339) I've kept this species many times, and I found that the hotter the better within reason. They did best in net cages with a heat lamp above the enclosure. I misted daily.(Rick) I never had any trouble keeping them communally but it may be best to keep males and female adults separate except for breeding purposes.(Rick) As all Empusids, this species cannot climb smooth surfaces and should get mesh or twigs to hang from. Temperatures should be about 80 for nymphs, and about 95 for adult males before breeding. Humidity needs only to be at 40-50%.(agent A) Type and size of enclosure(s) used.Substrate or lack thereofCage furnishings, e.g. molting surfaces, perches, décor, plants, etc.Feeding: They feed exclusively on flying food, but have been known to eat crickets. This can have adverse side effects, however.(brancsikia339) L1's through L3's for me were fed on mostly melanogasters and hydeis. From L4 on, they were fed mostly houseflies until some higher molts, in which they will accept BB's. They will also accept treats such as moths, butterflies, wasps and bees. (Bees not recommended because of rarity, and wasps can be dangerous to the mantids).(brancsikia339) These mantids prefer flying food and I raised them on flies. Start out with hydei fruit flies and transition them to houseflies followed by bluebottle flies. They do enjoy other flying insects such as moths.(Rick) Breeding: Males are volitable(able to fly) and females have short wings.(brancsikia339) This species is tricky to breed because males need high temps to mate, but an easy way to eggbind a female is overexposure to high temperatures. Keep the male in a hot, humid cage for a few days in a separate room (95F, 60-70%), then one evening introduce the female. Connection can still occur at room temp but the male needs high temps beforehand to make it work.(agent A) I incubate the ooths at 93f during the day and drop to 86f at night. I mist the container every other day one light mist. My temps are from a incubator so they don't fluctuate and have near perfect hatches in 4 to 6 weeks.(jrh3) Sexing/sexual dimorphism (explanation of physical differences and/or adult sizes of the sexes)Time needed from last molt to copulationTips: give us your methodology.Tips for inducing copulation and fecundityTips for inducing female to lay oothecaeOothecae: Ooths of gongylus are very peculiar, being spiky all around with a large protrustion on the front.(brancsikia339) Physical description and average size. Picture desired; include with other pictures at bottom of Care Sheet.Diapause if necessaryIncubation time and temperatureObserved number/s and range of hatching nymphsOptional Health Issues: infections or illnesses encountered.Additional Observations: pertinent information which doesn't neatly fit anywhere else.Photos: up to five may be posted at the bottom of the completed template. Please limit these photos to no more than one of an ootheca, two of nymphs(different instars), one of an adult female, and one of an adult male. (photo: jrh3) (photo: jrh3) Contributors: agent A, brancsikia339, jamurfjr, jrh3, Rick
  5. 1 point
    Phyllocrania paradoxa (Ghost Mantis) Introduction: The world famous ghost mantis, an extremely popular and easy species to rear, is talked about on an hourly basis on the forums. Ghost mantises are a decent size, extremely hardy, long lived, and tolerant of almost any conditions, not to mention they come in a range of colors, from all shades of brown to yellow, black, gray, greens and even mixes. Ghost mantises are very easy to rear and very attractive.(agent A) The genus name means "leaf head", and the head is outfitted with a twisted, leaf-like projection on top. The walking legs also have smaller, leaf-like lobes and the abdomen has a pair of flat, ragged extensions on each side. This may be the only species that's magnificent and always commands interest but is also easy (other mantids tend to be either uniquely amazing to look at or easy to keep).(Orin) Native range: Africa. Difficulty level: beginner. Development: Ghost mantises are slow growers at any temperature, though the time it takes from L1-L4 is relatively normal, L5 to adulthood is a long waiting game.(agent A) I must say right off the bat that males and females molt the SAME number of times. Don't let anyone tell you the females have an extra molt; they DONT! They BOTH molt SEVEN times.(agent A) The molt from L1 to L2 takes only about two weeks, and L2 to L3 is just a few days longer. L3 to L4 is less than 3 weeks, but then L4 to L5 takes up to a month. L5 to L6 is at least five weeks. L6 to L7 (sub adult for BOTH instars) is a bit longer, and they can spend 2-3 months in the sub adult stage, and surprisingly males can take longer than females to reach adulthood. (agent A) This mantis grows slowly, and lives longer than most species. As newly hatched nymphs, and for the first few molts, they eat and grow normally. However, as each successive molt occurs the interval between molts gets longer and longer, with the stage prior to the final molt taking up to two months. Limited food or care could easily stretch development far past a year, but five months is normal with adequate care.(Orin) Behavior/temperament: Degree of activityDegree of aggression or timidityPropensity to cannibalizeDynamics of threat displayCaptive Environment This species can tolerate temperatures between 65 and 85 degrees and can accept a wide range of humidity: from as low as 40% to as high as 70%. You can keep huge groups in terrariums or net cages with real or fake plants with little fear of cannibalism, or you can keep them in deli cups with a fake leaf and a paper towel on the bottom, or anything in between. So long as they can grip, climb, and walk, they are good.(agent A) Once they have molted a few times, they do not need much water or humidity, and only require a light misting two to three times a week. Phyllocrania paradoxa seldom kill each other after the third molt. They are often kept together long-term but females do eat males.(Orin) Feeding Nymphs can be tricky to feed, as they may not go after crawling food. L1 and L2 will eat hydei; L3 and L4 will eat houseflies (though L4 will also eat bottleflies), and after this, bottleflies are a good food for nymphs. They also appreciate moths, roaches, and crickets. Nymphs can go a long time without food, I've had nymphs (unintentionally) go 5 weeks without food and survive; though if a nymph hasn't eaten in a while, it is not advisable to just load it up with food (it wont be able to digest it all, possibly resulting in death). Instead, fill it back up slowly for 2 weeks before getting it real fat again (this goes for ANY animal btw).(agent A) Ghost mantids prefer to eat food a quarter of their mass or less. They are hearty feeders but prefer to stay on a fixed perch which should be positioned so food comes nearby. They rarely chase after prey unless it is less than an inch away (glass climbing roach nymphs are a favorite food).(Orin) Breeding The males are easily identified after two molts because the expansion of the male's prothorax is much smaller and the leaf on the head is pinched in the middle. Both genders are about two inches long when fully grown but the female is much more massive. Her tegmina look like dried brown leaves complete with veins while the male's tegmina look more like the hindwings and give him an odd, rectangular shape.(Orin) Sexing can be done as early as L4 by looking at the head crown. Males have a tall, jagged crown, while females have a forked and structured, symmetrical head crown. And as nymphs get older, males will have a narrower range of colors(mainly blacks and grays), while females take on browns and greens.(agent A) Surprisingly, males can take longer than females to reach adulthood. Fortunately, they are quick to breed. These are an extremely prolific species. Both sexes can be ready to mate as early as 2 weeks into adulthood, but I wait 3 weeks to be safe.(agent A) Males barely eat (don't be surprised if during his adult life, a male only eats one bottlefly) but are active and fly readily. Females eat a lot, and should be nice and well fed before mating. You don't usually have to worry about females attacking the males, especially if she is well fed. A good way to breed them is to have the males in a warm, humid cage (80oz cup with wet paper towel under a heat lamp works fine) and let them warm for two days or so; then in the evening put in a female or two, and usually you will wake up to a connected pair. They stay connected for 2-8 hours, and females will lay ooths frequently. Try not to keep females too warm after mating, since they have a habit of laying small ooths every few days rather than long ones every week and a half.(agent A) Oothecae: Giving them fake plants to lay on also helps increase ooth length. Ooths can be incubated at room temp with twice weekly misting. Hatching occurs 6-10 weeks later, with 20-60 nymphs resulting. Females can lay well over 12 ooths in their lifetime.(agent A) They prefer to construct oothecae on sticks a quarter inch or less in diameter. Oothecae are similar in shape and size to Creobroter oothecae, but the surface is smooth and glossy and there is a long thread-like extension at one end.(Orin) Optional Health Issues: infections or illnesses encountered.Additional Observations: pertinent information which doesn't neatly fit anywhere else.Photos: up to five may be posted at the bottom of the completed template. Please limit these photos to no more than one of an ootheca, two of nymphs(different instars), one of an adult female, and one of an adult male. (photo: jamurfjr) (photo: jamurfjr) Contributors: Agent A, jamurfjr, Orin
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